Wednesday, May 29, 2013


Usually grouped with the Hypsilophodonts, Iguanodonts are considered to be the more advanced of the “Beaked Dinosaur” (Ornithopoda) Family. Considerably larger than Hypsilophodonts, Iguanodonts switched from walking around on two legs to going about four legs. With their toothless beaks and specialized jaws, these Dinosaurs not only could eat a wide variety of plants, but also break their food down more efficiently.
            As one of the first groups of Dinosaurs ever to be discovered, the Iguanodon Family is also one of the best known. Being a relatively successful Family, They lived from the middle Jurassic to the late Cretaceous (about 100 million years). However, paleontologists considered this Family to be a “waste basket” (artificial) grouping of Dinosaurs, who were neither completely Duck-billed nor “Primitive Beaked” Dinosaurs. Moreover, cladistics revealed that this group display the evolution of Dinosaurs from Hypsilophodonts (“Primitive Beaked” Dinosaurs) to Hadrosaurs (Duck-billed Dinosaurs).
            The Iguanodont Family reflects the growth in people’s knowledge of Dinosaurs from the first historical discovery to modern times. As we learned more about Dinosaurs, this Family became the measuring stick for our growth in wisdom. Acting as the mirror to ourselves, the Iguanodont Family tells us where we have succeeded or failed. When we want an honest assessment of ourselves, we look to this Family for what next They will reveal to us.

Friday, May 24, 2013


Note: Front claws may be incorrect.

Discovered in 1849 on the Isle of Wight, Hypsilophodon was first mistaken for a small Iguanodon. Since both species were considered to be “Beaked Dinosaurs” (Ornithopoda), confusion about who was who was common in the early days of paleontology. Finally in 1874, scientists decided that She was a different Genus from Iguanodon. However paleontologists continued to make erroneous assumptions about Hypsilophodon. For example, they believed that She climbed trees like Tree Kangaroo. Then in 1970, paleontologists re-examined their theories about Her. They realized that Hypsilophodon was a fast runner who could not climb trees.
            Once scientists sorted out who Hypsilophodon was, they were amazed by her speed. Besides being small and light, She had long and slender legs. Using her strong thigh muscles, Hypsilophodon could dodge and dart between the larger Dinosaurs. While running on her two feet, She held her long tail straight out for balance. Built for speed, Hypsilophodon could execute sharp maneuvers.
            When faced with the need for a speedy getaway or to avoid being crushed by something larger than you, look to Hypsilophodon for help. Let Her show you how to zip around with ease. Also learn from Her how to finesse tricky corners. When speed is needed, what better teacher than Hypsilophodon?

Wednesday, May 22, 2013


The Hypsilophodont Family and the Iguanodont Family are traditionally grouped together as “Beaked Dinosaurs” (Ornithopoda).  The former would be the “Primitive Beaked” Dinosaurs, and the latter “Advanced Beaked” ones. Moreover, the Hypsilophodonts were considered to be bird-hipped Dinosaurs, who walked on two feet (bipedal). Dinosaurs included in this Family are Drinker, Hypsilophodon, and Leaellynasaura. However, several members of the Hypsilophodont Family are more closely related to Iguanodonts, than to other Hypsilophodonts.         
Since the Hypsilophodont Family was discovered at the beginning of paleontology, They originally were not properly defined. Named in 1886 by O.C. Marsh, Hypsilophodonts were thought to have “bird feet,” which later proved to be incorrect. Later scientists realized that the defining characteristic of this Family was their mouths. These Dinosaurs had beaks, and powerful jaws with simple leaf-shaped teeth. Hence They are now regarded as “Primitive Beaked” Dinosaurs.
Hypsilophodonts were speedy little Dinosaurs, who zipped along the countryside on two legs. Living in the shadow of larger, fiercer Dinosaurs, Hypsilophodonts had to be tough. Successful at grazing on low laying plants, this Family thrived from the early Jurassic to the end of the Cretaceous. They even lived in Antarctica, surviving the long dark winters there.
            “Primitive Beaked” Dinosaurs (Hypsilophodonts) are not what people imagine when they ponder Dinosaurs. Though not huge, these swift little Dinosaurs were as fierce as their giant “cousins.” Hypsilophodonts defy our notions of Dinosaurs. These small robust Dinosaurs are as worthy of the title “Dinosaurs” as the others are. Hypsilophodonts exude self-worth by being small but mighty. When you feel unimportant or insignificant, let Them encourage you to have pride at being yourself.

Wednesday, May 08, 2013

Ethics for Magical People: Individuals and Groupthink: Sources (4 of 4)

Works Used:

Center for Ethics and Business, “Resolving an Ethical Dilemma,” Loyola Marymount University,  2009,

Charterted Institute of Management Accountants, “Ethical Dilemmas: What would you do?,” CIMA Global, .

Cook, Karen and Robin Cooper, “The Rape of Nanking: Analyzing Events From a Sociological Perspective,” Stanford University, 2000,

Hrafn, “Weaving Wyrd,” blog,

Kaldera, Raven, “Wyrdwalkers: Techniques of Northern-Tradition Shamanism,” Asphodel Press: Hubbardston, MA, 2006.

Mcleod, S. A., Simply Psychology - Articles for Students: Lawrence Kohlberg,” 2007,

Straker, David, “Changing Minds,”,

Wodening, Swain, “Musings on Theodism and Germanic Heathenry in General,” blog,

Wong, Alan, “Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development,” Blessed to be a Blessing, 2000,

---, “Working in Groups,” University of Pittsburgh, 2007, .

Wren , “Teachers (Part 4): Teachers and Magical Ethics,” The Witches’ Voice, 2000

Zell-Ravenheart, Oberon , “Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard,” Franklin Lakes: New Page Books, 2004.

Monday, May 06, 2013

Ethics for Magical People: Individuals and Groupthink (3 of 4)

John does not have the same ethical dilemma as Heather’s. In his mind, the spell is simply a “get caught spell.” Also he wants to be on good terms with both her and the Silver Stars. According to the “Stages of Moral Development,” developed by the psychologist Lawrence Kohberg, John is probably at Level Two: Conventional Morality. At this stage, people will conform to the norms of society at large. Within Level Two are two stages: Stage Three: the “good boy or good girl” focused on being “nice” and keeping relationships, and Stage Four: the desire to maintain the social order. John wants to belong to the group, follow the Wiccan Rede, and be friends of Heather. Therefore John decided not to support Heather against the group, but also did not to denigrate her choice of interpretation.

Heather has to decide whether continuing a friendship with John will affect her ethical decision. Heather has to accept that he will stay home and not do the spell. Because Heather feels that John does not support her against the group, she probably needs to distance herself from him. Since John does value her friendship, he will give her that space. Her parting from John should not be done in anger but in respect for his decision.

Life in my neighborhood became intolerable, after one of the gang members committed murder. Although his mother maintained her son’s innocence, he was convicted and sent to prison. At that point, the neighbors decided to evict her since she allowed the gang to stay in her home.  The situation became difficult for me since everyone knew I had called the police, but still spoke to the mother. I was neutral about the mother since I was neither her judge nor jury. The mother knew that I worked with the civil authorities, but still greeted me. Eventually, the gang was broken up and the mother moved to be closer to her son in prison.

For several years, my neighbors did not speak with me. I made my choices knowing that my neighbors would shun me. It hurt but at least I could live with myself since I did what I thought was morally correct. For me, there were no absolutes in ethics, only what I could live with.

I had to consider the consequences of my actions beyond myself. Divination was a way to understand those consequences and to prepare for them. Heather, by walking away from the group, will face the consequences of isolation from both the group and her friend John. Heather will remain true to her interpretation of the Rede.