Thursday, July 28, 2011

Roman Paganism: Capitol Triad (4)

Triads of Roman Gods

The Romans had several Trios of Gods to oversee their State affairs. The Archaic Triad, the first, consisted of Jupiter (the Ruler of the Heavens), Mars (Guardian of the Crops), and Quirinus (God of Roman Civic Life).  Later this trio was superseded by the Capitoline Triad.

The Capitoline Triad was Jupiter Optimus Maximus (the Supreme God), Juno Regina (Ruler of the State), and Minerva (Goddess of Wisdom).  The Capitolium, a temple on Capitoline Hill, hosted these Gods.  This grouping of a male God with two females reflects Etruscan influence (of Tinia (Supreme Deity), Uni (his wife), and Menrva (their daughter, Goddess of Wisdom).    

Meanwhile, the plebeians venerated the Aventine Trio.  The temple of Ceres (the Goddess of Agriculture) on Aventine Hill, housed the City’s grain supply.  This temple also hosted Liber and Libera, Gods who oversaw the fertility of the fields.  These three Gods (Ceres, Liber, Libera), together, looked after the plebeians.

Works Used
____, Nova Roma, 2011, 05 July 2011 <>

Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins, "Dictionary of Roman Religion”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Asborn, Kevin and Dana Burgess, “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Classical Mythology”, New York: Penguin Publishing, 2004

Ovid, “Fasti”, translated by Betty Rose Nagle, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Scheid, John, “An Introduction to Roman Religion”, translated by Janet Lloyd, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Turcan, Robert, “The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times”, translated by Antonia Nevill, New York: Edinburgh University Press, 2001.

Warrior, Valerie, “Roman Religion: A Source Book”, New York: Focus Publishing, 2002.

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